Based on population, a Black person was 2.3x as likely and a Latinx person was 1x as likely to be killed by police as a White person in Texas from 2013-21.
We obtained data on 731 Police and 254 Sheriff’s Depts in the state of Texas.
Scorecard at a Glance
Average for 4 Sections: 50%
Scores range from 0-100% comparing states with data from both state and local law enforcement agencies within the population. States with higher scores spend less on policing, use less force, are more likely to hold officers accountable and make fewer arrests for low-level offenses.
|Police Funding: 43%|
|Police Budget Cost per Person|
|Police Presence/Over-Policing (Officers per Population)|
|Police Violence: 57%|
|Force Used per Arrest|
|Deadly Force per Arrest|
|Unarmed Victims of Deadly Force per Arrest|
|Racial Disparities in Deadly Force|
|Police Accountability: 40%|
|Misconduct Complaints Upheld|
|Excessive Force Complaints Upheld|
|Discrimination Complaints Upheld|
|Criminal Misconduct Complaints Upheld|
|Approach to Law Enforcement: 61%|
|Arrest Rate for Low Level Offenses|
|Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests|
|Jail Incarceration Rate|
|Jail Deaths per 1,000|
874 Killings by Police
14,659 civilian complaints of police misconduct
18% were ruled in favor of civilians from 2016-21.
6,756,782 arrests made
67% of all arrests were for low-level, non-violent offenses from 2013-21.
Police Funding By Year
$9.35B | 27,885,195 Residents | $335 per Resident
More Police Funding per Capita than 40% of States
Funds taken from communities in fines and forfeitures
Total: $17.07B from 2010-20
More Fines/Forfeitures than 17% of States
Number of officers per 1k population
59,121 Officers | 21.1 per 10k Residents
More Officers per Population than 54% of States
Used More Force per Arrest than N/A of States
24,868 Incidents | 111 every 10k arrests | ▶+6%
No Data Found Add Data
874 Killings by Police from 2013-21 | 1.3 every 10k arrests
^ More Killings by Police per Arrest than 49% of States
Deadly Force by Armed Status
12% Unarmed | 42% Did Not Allegedly Have a Gun
^ More Unarmed People Killed per Arrest than 49% of States
Police Violence by Race
Population of Texas
Texas Law Enforcement Demographics
^ More Racial Disparities in Deadly Force than 22% of States
Total civilian complaints
14,659 from 2016-21 | 18% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Use of Force Complaints
956 Reported | 7% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Complaints of Police Discrimination
428 Reported | 3% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Alleged Crimes Committed by Police
88 Reported | 31% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Arrests By Year
6,756,782 Arrests Reported from 2013-2021
Arrests for Low Level Offenses
4,559,031 Arrests | 20 per 1k residents
^ Higher Arrest Rate for Low Level Offenses than 40% of States
Disparities in Arrests for Low Level Offenses by Race/Ethnicity
Black people were 2.6x more likely and Latinx people were 1.1x more likely to be arrested for low level, non-violent offenses than a white person.
Percent of total arrests by type
All Arrests for Low Level Offenses ( 67% )
Drug Possession ( 15% )
Violent Crime ( 4% )
13,246 Homicides from 2013-21 | 4815 Unsolved
^ Solved Fewer Homicides than 57% of States
Percent of Homicides Unsolved by Race
Homicides of Black Victims Unsolved ( 28% )
Homicides of Latinx Victims Unsolved ( 21% )
Homicides of White Victims Unsolved ( 13% )
Deaths in Jail
629 Deaths from 2013-19 | 9 per 1k Jail Population
Homicide Suicide Other Investigating
^ Higher Rate of Jail Deaths than 20% of States
Jail Incarceration rate
13,142 Avg Daily Jail Population | 3 per 1k residents
^ More than 61% of Sheriff's Depts
People in Jail Without Being Convicted
50 % of People in Jail
Texas Statewide Scores
Rankings are based upon a 0 to 100 percentage scale. States with higher scores use less force, make fewer arrests for low level offenses, solve murder cases more often, hold officers more accountable and spend less on policing overall.
Overall Scores for States where We Have Obtained the Most Data.
Tap "show more" to see extended list
* An asterisk indicates this location did not publish enough data to evaluate. Click below to add data to the Scorecard.
About This Scorecard
This is the first nationwide evaluation of policing in the United States. It was built using data from state and federal databases, public records requests to local police departments, and media reports. While police data is never perfect, and there are additional indicators that still need to be tracked, the Police Scorecard is designed to provide insight into many important issues in policing.
Police Scorecard is an independent 501(c)(3) organization, learn more about our team here. If you have feedback, questions about the project, or need support with an advocacy campaign, contact our Founder, Samuel Sinyangwe.
Use this Scorecard to identify issues within police departments that require the most urgent interventions and hold officials accountable for implementing solutions. For example, cities with higher rates of low level arrests could benefit most from solutions that create alternatives to policing and arrest for these offenses. In cities where police make fewer arrests overall but use more force when making arrests, communities could benefit significantly from policies designed to hold police accountable for excessive force. And cities where complaints of police misconduct are rarely ruled in favor of civilians could benefit from creating an oversight structure to independently investigate these complaints.
Here's how to start pushing for change
Contact your State's Governor and Attorney General, share your scorecard with them and urge them to enact policies to address the issues you've identified:
- TX State Attorney General Ken Paxton
Look up your state and federal representatives below, then tell them to take action to hold police accountable in your community.
Join a team of researchers, students, data scientists, activists and organizers working to collect, analyze and use data for justice and accountability.
Create data visualizations and content that raises awareness about solutions to the issues identified by the data.
Step 1: COMPLETED
Obtain data on 100 California cities. Refine methodology in response to feedback from communities, researchers and local officials.
Step 2: COMPLETED
Expand to every major law enforcement agency in America and include additional indicators such as police budgets and jail incarceration.
Step 3: IN PROGRESS
Inform data-driven solutions nationwide. Update as new federal, state and local data are collected. Track progress and hold cities accountable to results.