Based on population, a Black person was 1.9x as likely and a Latinx person was 1.6x as likely to be killed by police as a White person in Tucson from 2013-20.
We obtained data on 83 Arizona police departments.
Scorecard at a Glance
Average for 4 Sections: 45%
Scores range from 0-100% comparing cities with over 250k population. Cities with higher scores spend less on policing, use less force, are more likely to hold officers accountable and make fewer arrests for low-level offenses.
|Police Funding: 63%|
|Police Budget Cost per Person|
|Police Presence/Over-Policing (Officers per Population)|
|Police Violence: 67%|
|Force Used per Arrest|
|Deadly Force per Arrest|
|Unarmed Victims of Deadly Force per Arrest|
|Racial Disparities in Deadly Force|
|Police Accountability: 8%|
|Misconduct Complaints Upheld|
|Excessive Force Complaints Upheld|
|Discrimination Complaints Upheld|
|Criminal Misconduct Complaints Upheld|
|Approach to Law Enforcement: 42%|
|Arrest Rate for Low Level Offenses|
|Racial Disparities in Drug Arrests|
33 Killings by Police
2,024 civilian complaints of police misconduct
3% were ruled in favor of civilians from 2016-19.
251,517 arrests made
68% of all arrests were for low-level, non-violent offenses from 2013-20.
Police Funding By Year
$193.27M | $360 per Resident
More Police Funding per Capita than 49% of Depts
Funds Spent On Misconduct Settlements
$391k per year from 2012-14 | $7,274 per 10k population
^ More Spending due to Misconduct than 14% of Depts
Number of officers per 1k population
901 Officers | 15.9 per 10k Residents
More Officers per Population than 37% of Depts
More Police Shootings per Arrest than 32% of Depts
Used More Force per Arrest than 18% of Depts
396 Incidents | 41 every 10k arrests
33 Killings by Police from 2013-20 | 1.3 every 10k arrests
^ More Killings by Police per Arrest than 46% of Depts
Deadly Force by Armed Status
12% Unarmed | 27% Did Not Allegedly Have a Gun
^ More Unarmed People Killed per Arrest than 46% of Depts
Police Violence by Race
Population of Tucson
Tucson Police Dept Demographics
^ More Racial Disparities in Deadly Force than 21% of Depts
Total civilian complaints
2,024 from 2016-19 | 3% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Use of Force Complaints
69 Reported | 1% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Complaints of Police Discrimination
28 Reported | 0% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Alleged Crimes Committed by Police
7 Reported | 14% Ruled in Favor of Civilians
Arrests By Year
251,517 Arrests Reported from 2013-2020
Arrests for Low Level Offenses
169,788 Arrests | 45 per 1k residents
^ Higher Arrest Rate for Low Level Offenses than 98% of Depts
Percent of total arrests by type
All Arrests for Low Level Offenses ( 68% )
Drug Possession ( 9% )
Violent Crime ( 3% )
337 Homicides from 2013-19 | 143 Unsolved
^ Solved Fewer Homicides than 38% of Depts
Percent of Homicides Unsolved by Race
Homicides of Black Victims Unsolved ( 34% )
Homicides of Latinx Victims Unsolved ( 33% )
Homicides of White Victims Unsolved ( 19% )
Arizona Police Department Scores
Rankings are based upon a 0 to 100 percentage scale. Departments with higher scores use less force, make fewer arrests for low level offenses, solve murder cases more often, hold officers more accountable and spend less on policing overall.
Overall Scores for Depts where We Have Obtained the Most Data.
Tap "show more" to see extended list
|15. Tempe 29%||▶-3%|
|14. Yuma 35%||▶-5%|
|13. Scottsdale 37%||▶+7%|
|12. Phoenix 40%||▶+4%|
|11. Mesa 42%||▶+1%|
|10. Flagstaff 45%||▶+5%|
|9. Tucson 45%||▶+3%|
|8. Kingman 46%||▶-7%|
|* Prescott 42%||▶+1%|
|* Holbrook 42%|
|* Clifton 42%||▶-3%|
|* Payson 42%||▶-3%|
|* Marana 43%||▶+2%|
|* Thatcher 43%||▶-4%|
|* Jerome 43%||▶-2%|
|* Oro Valley 43%||▶-8%|
* An asterisk indicates this location did not publish enough data to evaluate. Click below to add data to the Scorecard.
About This Scorecard
This is the first nationwide evaluation of policing in the United States. It was built using data from state and federal databases, public records requests to local police departments, and media reports. While police data is never perfect, and there are additional indicators that still need to be tracked, the Police Scorecard is designed to provide insight into many important issues in policing.
Use this Scorecard to identify issues within police departments that require the most urgent interventions and hold officials accountable for implementing solutions. For example, cities with higher rates of low level arrests could benefit most from solutions that create alternatives to policing and arrest for these offenses. In cities where police make fewer arrests overall but use more force when making arrests, communities could benefit significantly from policies designed to hold police accountable for excessive force. And cities where complaints of police misconduct are rarely ruled in favor of civilians could benefit from creating an oversight structure to independently investigate these complaints.
Here's how to start pushing for change
Contact your Mayor and Police Chief, share your scorecard with them and urge them to enact policies to address the issues you've identified:
Advocacy Tip: There is problematic language in this city's police union contract that could make it harder to hold officers accountable. Learn more about this contract and how to change it at Nixthe6.org.
Look up your state and federal representatives below, then tell them to take action to hold police accountable in your community.
Join a team of researchers, students, data scientists, activists and organizers working to collect, analyze and use data for justice and accountability.
Create data visualizations and content that raises awareness about solutions to the issues identified by the data.
If you have feedback, questions about the project, or need support with an advocacy campaign, contact our Project Lead, Samuel Sinyangwe.
Step 1: COMPLETED
Obtain data on 100 California cities. Refine methodology in response to feedback from communities, researchers and local officials.
Step 2: COMPLETED
Expand to every major law enforcement agency in America and include additional indicators such as police budgets and jail incarceration.
Step 3: IN PROGRESS
Inform data-driven solutions nationwide. Update as new federal, state and local data are collected. Track progress and hold cities accountable to results.